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History of Andalusia    

The most important historical events (incidents) since 2500 BC

Time table  (chronological order)

Phoenician Goddess
 (statue from the
  8th century BC) 



Since the times of the first metalworking (third millenium BC) the land between two oceans and two continents is a preferred target of many diverse people. The oldest known monarchy of "Tartessos" originates in the 11th century in southern Spain influenced by the Phoenician and the Greek. Agriculture and cattle breeding as well as mining industry and gold processing are the dominating activities of their trading civilisation.
They are followed by the Turdetanian, an Iberian tribe, later the Carthaginias found their own settlements.


Time table


2500 BC

First metalworking.

11. - 6. BC

Kingdom of "Tartessos".

900 BC

Phoenician settle the Iberian peninsula and found Cádiz.

8. Jh. BC

Foundation of Hispalis (Seville).

600 BC

Greek settlements along the Andalusian coast.

500 BC

Carthaginian (Punic) settlements

264 BC

Begin of the Punic War (1st).
During the 3rd Century BC the Romans beat the Carthaginian in the two Punic Wars, found and dominate for the next 700 years the "Baetica" province. Andalusia supplies the Roman Empire with food, oil, wine and metal. The philosopher Seneca and the first two emperors born outside of Rome come from Italica (near Seville): Trajan and Hadrian . Since the 3rd Century Rome looks more and more to the eastern world (Constantinople).

218 BC

Begin of the Punic War (2nd).

216 BC

Hispalis is destructed by the Romans.

205 BC

Scipio founds Italica.

19 BC

Foundation of the "Baetica" province.

98 - 117

Trajan: Roman emperor, the first to be born outside Italy.

117 - 138

Hadrian, Trajan's nephew and successor as Roman emperor.

3rd C.

Growing influence of the Christian religion.
With the decline of Rome the Vandals, a northern Germanic people, conquer the land and give it its name: "Vandalusia". Their reign is of short duration, they are followed by the Visigoth, who settle leaded by their king Alarich II. on the Iberian peninsula and experience under the Christian bishops Leander and Isidor their prospering period.


409 - 429

Reign of the Vandals.


Foundation of the Visigoth Kongdom.

484 - 507

King Alarich 2nd


The Visigoth convert to the Catholic belief.

th-7th C.

The bishops Leander and Isidor are the main protagonists of the Visigoth reign.
At the beginning of the 8th Century the Arab cross the street of Gibraltar and spread fast on the Iberian peninsula. The independent Emirate Al-Andalus and later the Caliphate of Córdoba (challenging Bagdad) mark the blooming time of the Omayyade dynasty and thus the Arab culture in Andalusia. Córdoba becomes the center and melting pot of different cultures and religions. Trade, science, handicraft and arts experience a long succeedful period. Starting from 1031 the Caliphate disintegrates into small Islamic reigns. Almoravids and Almohads (Berber) alternate their rulership until the 13th Century. After the fall of Córdoba (1236) and Seville (1248) the Nasrid Kings maintain their kingdom in Granada for two and a half centuries more. The last Moor king Boabdil hands over the city of Granada to the Catholic Monarchs Isabel and Fernando in January 1492 and moves to the Alpujarra mountains.

711 - 716

Arab military troops under Tarik-ibn-Ziyad conquer the region.


Abd ar-Rahman.I. founds the  Emirate of Córdoba.


Abd ar-Rahman III. proclaims himself Caliph of Córdoba.


Decline of the Caliphate.

since 1086

Reign of the Almoravids.

Mid 12th C.

Reign of the Almohads.


Christian troops defeat the Almohads close to Las Navas de Tolosa.

13th C.

The Kastilian rulers conquer large parts of Andalusia.

1232 - 1492

Nasrid Kingdom in Granada

January 1492

Capitulation of King Boabdil
With the discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus begins the golden age of Andalusia. Seville becomes the main place for all trading activities with the West Indies and the cultural center of Spain. Since 1503 Ships loaded with gold and silver from the New World dock since 1503 in the port of Seville. Unknown plants and food achieve to Europe and change agricultural and nutrition habits of the Europeans. Later Cádiz takes over the trade monopoly from Seville.
Under the strong influence of the Renaissance and the Baroque are constructed cathedrals, churches, palaces, public buildings and many new squares.
Political rivalries, economic mismanagement, the loss of the hegemony on the oceans and the efects of four epidemic pest deseases mark the beginning of the political and economic decline of Seville and whole Spain in the first half of the 17th Century.

Oct. 1492

Columbus reaches the West Indies.


Seville has the trade monopoly for the New World.


Charles V inherits the Spanish crown:

16th C.

Suppression of two Arab revolts


Philipp II successor of Charles V.


The "invincible" Spanish "Armada" is destroyed by England.


Deportation of the last Moors.


Philipp IV accesses the throne.


Revolts in the big Andalusian cities.


Seville loses half of its population by the pest desease.


Cádiz obtains the trade monopoly from Seville.
Spain does not get out of the crises. The 18th Century begins with the Spanish War of succession, in whose process Gibraltar becomes British. Philipp V, the first Bourbone on the Spanish throne, lives a few years in Seville. The ideas of the French Illustration (Illumination) have a notable influence in the middle of the Century. Cádiz loses the monopoly of the trade with the New World in 1788.
The 19th Century Andalusa is involved in the Napoleonic Wars, which impacts the entire continent. At the same time the Spanish colonial empire declines and the conflicts  about the succession of the Spanish throne are violent as well. In the mid of the Century Spain experience a time of social tensions and upcoming liberal revolutionary ideas. The first republic is restored after two years by the monarchy. At the end of the 19th Century Andalusia suffers again some revolts. The war against the USA marks the end of the colonial empire. The Spanish crown loses Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.


Spanish War of Succession.


Gibraltar becomes British.


Cádiz loses the monopoly for the trade with the New World.


Wars against Napoleon


First Spanish Constitution (Cádiz).


Wars for the Spanish throne.


First Spanish Republic.


Restauration of the monarchy under Alfonso XII


Revolts in Jerez de la Frontera.


Lost of the last Spanish colonies.
In the first half of the 20th Century Spain is afflicted by social and political conflicts. After the dictatorship of Primo de Riveras follows the Second Republic. Spain does not participate in the two World Wars, but since 1936 the Civil War destroys large parts of the country. In his consequence the victorious general Franco governs the country up to his death in the year 1975. The coronation of King Juan Carlos I and mainly the restauration of the democracy open new possibilities for the different regions. Andalusia receives the status of an autonomous region. The economic and social progress of the sixties and seventies is strengthened in southern Spain by the boom of the tourism. The membershiop of Spain in the European Community (Union) creates also new perspectives for the Andalusian agricultural production.


Period of social and economic tensions.


Dictatorship under General Primo de Rivera.


Ibero-American world exposition in Seville.


2nd Republic.


Civil War.


Dictatorship of General Franco.


Juan Carlos I. King of Spain.


Free elections in Spain.


Andalusia receives the status of an autonomous region. Regional Parliament elections.


Spain becomes member of the European Community (Today: European Union).


EXPO in Seville.

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